REFERENCE GUIDE 

Manuscripts published in TAD may follow one of two formats of The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS): Notes and Bibliography or Author-Date References System. The choice is up to the author and assumed to reflect the standards of the scholarly community in which the author participates. Authors are also encouraged to consult the seventeenth edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, Chapter 14 and Chapter 15. Also, see the CMS  Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide.

This document outlines and provides examples for the TAD citation requirements for both styles. This guide closely follows the standards of CMS, though authors should take the time to review the guidelines here and adjust their reference software templates accordingly.

NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY STYLE

Authors selecting the Notes and Bibliography citation system should use endnotes, not footnotes, to document their sources. This format is flexible as it gives a space to list the relevant references and simultaneously provides a space to list additional information.[1] While at times used in conjunction with a bibliography, the articles published in TAD utilizing this format only include endnotes. Use Arabic numerals as a superscript that follow the punctuation of the sentence.

Notes on Endnotes:

  • Multiple superscripts are not to be used, rather an endnote may contain more than one reference.
  • The format for repetition of citations within endnotes is dependent on the note’s location relative to its first use.
    • If the repeated citation occurs directly after the first use, abbreviate it using “Ibid.” with the page number as appropriate.
    • When the repeated citation occurs later within the text, use a shortened citation with the authors last name(s) and no more than four words of the title.
      Example: Ng, Performative Materials in Architecture, 242.:

 

Examples Using Notes and Bibliography Style:

Book

  1. J. Alread, T. Leslie, and R. Whitehead. Design-Tech: Building Science for Architects. 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 2014).

Edited Book

  1. W.W. Braham and J.A. Hales, eds. Rethinking Technology: A Reader in Architectural Technology (New York: Routledge, 2007).

E-Book

  1. M.E. Deming and S. Swaffield. Landscape Architectural Research: Inquiry, Strategy, Design (Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2011). ProQuest Ebook Central.

Chapter of an Edited Book

  1. R. Ng, 2013. “Essay: Speculations on Future Materiality.” In Performative Materials in Architecture and Design, edited by R. Ng and S. Patel (Chicago: Intellect, The University of Chicago Press, 2013), 237-252.

Journal Article

  1. M. Decker, “Novelty and Ownership: Intellectual Property in Architecture and Design,” Technology | Architecture + Design 1, no. 1 (2017): 41 – 47.
  2. S.K. Ayer, J.L. Messner, and C.J. Anumba, “Augmented Reality Gaming in Sustainable Design Education,” Journal of Architectural Engineering, 22, no. 1 (March 2016): 04015012-1 – 04015012-8, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)AE.1943-5568.0000195.

Thesis or Dissertation

  1. E. McBride, “The Development of Architectural Office Specialization as Evidenced by Professional Journals, 1890-1920,” (Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 454), Washington University, 2009.

Conference Paper

  1. I. Sangamithra and M. Page, “Planning for New York City’s Water Supply Resiliency” Paper presented at the International Conference on Sustainable Infrastructure, New York, NY, October 26-28, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784481202.027.
  2. E. Carrager and J. Rügemer, “Collaborative Solid Wood Construction Case Study,” in Proceedings of the 2015 Building Technology Educators’ Society Conference, Salt Lake City, UT, 2015, 39-48.

Newspaper Article

  1. F. Harvey, “Graphene ‘a game-changer’ in making building with concrete greener,” The Guardian, April 23, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/apr/23/graphene-a-game-changer-in-making-building-with-concrete-greener.

Archival Material

  1. N.C. Ricker, “Shop practice in woodwork 1875,” Nathan C. Ricker Transcripts & Textbooks, 1873–1875, 1884–1890, 1898–1907, 1914–1921, Record Series 12/2/21, Box 4, Univ. of Illinois Archives, Urbana, IL, 1875.

Interview

  1. J. Drew, “Drew, Jane. (2 of 9). National Life Story Collection: Architects’ Lives,” interview by M. Garlake, May 20-21, 1995, audio, 31:31, https://sounds.bl.uk/Oral-history/Architects-Lives/021M-C0467X0003XX-0200V0.

Website Content

  1. “Ensuring your research makes an impact,” Taylor and Francis, accessed May 7, 2018, https://authorservices.taylorandfrancis.com/ensuring-your-research-makes-an-impact/.

Video Content

  1. A. Levete, “Amanda Levete, AL_A, on the Changing Role of Risk in Architecture,” National Architecture Conference, Australian Institute of Architects, May 16, 2015, video, 25:55. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4GJOV_tbD_U.

Social Media Content

  1. Adjaye Associates (@adjayeassociates), “We are honoured to announce that our principal Sir David Adjaye been officially knighted at an investiture ceremony at #buckinghampalace today,” Instagram photo, May 12, 2017, https://www.instagram.com/p/BT_1sYLlhkP/?hl=en&taken-by=adjayeassociates.

Patent

  1. R. Piano, D. Campbell, and A. Guthrie. Light transmission system and method for buildings. US Patent 7,222,461, filed February 28, 2003, and issued May 29, 2007.

Software

  1. Typical format: Developer, Title, (Release City and Country, Publisher, Year).  Adapted from Gaming Studies: International Journal of Computer Game Research

Piker, Kangaroo 2.42, United Kingdom: http://www.food4rhino.com/app/kangaroo-physics, 2017.

 

 

AUTHOR-DATE REFERENCE STYLE

In this style, the manuscript author cites the work of others by creating an abbreviated citation that runs in the text (The Chicago Manual of Style 2017, 15.7) and placing the full citation in a reference list at the end.

Notes on In-text Citations:

  • Locate the in-text citation directly after the point being made. This may be within the sentence at the end of a clause or at the very end.
  • Ensure all in-text citations can be found in the reference list, and all text listed in the reference list are cited within the text. As the editing of text can easily add or remove references, please double check the inclusion and omission of references immediately prior to submission.
  • The parenthetical citation contains the author’s last name and the date of publication. Note that there is no comma between the author and the year of publication, only between the year and relevant page or section. Include page number when appropriate.

      In-text citation reads: (Crosson 2018)
      In-text citation reads: (Fisher 2017, 132)
      In-text citation reads: (MacArthur and Sun 2017)

  • For three or more authors, use the first author’s last name and abbreviate the remaining with the use of “et al.” (and others). All others will be listed fully in the reference list.

      In-text citation reads: (Yin et al. 2018, 98)

  • If the work by one author with the same publication is used within the manuscript, then they are to be arranged alphabetically by title and a letter is given to the year to identify each.

      In-text citation reads: (Arup 1985a)
      In-text citation reads: (Arup 1985b)

  • For references of authors with multiple citations published same year and with three or more authors, use the name of the first two authors and the date.

      In-text citation reads: (Rakha, Liberty et al. 2018)
      In-text citation reads: (Rakha, Moss et al. 2018)

  • When multiple citations are needed to support the text, separate the citations with a semicolon.

      In-text citation reads: (Fisher 2017, 132; Vonier 2018)

  • If a cited author’s name is mentioned in the text of the manuscript, then only the year is need for the in-text citation within that sentence.

For example: Construction Historian Tom Peters (1996) posits…

  • For quotes that come from secondary sources, the original author is named within the text and the location of the quote is found in the reference list and in the in-text citation such as (quoted in Dearborn and Bliss 2018, 23). Note, this should only be used when the original citation cannot be found.

Notes on Reference list:

  • Abbreviate the first names of all authors with their first initial.
  • For websites, include the access date in month day, year format.

 

Examples Using Author-Date Reference Style:

Book

Alread, J., T. Leslie, and R. Whitehead. 2014. Design-Tech: Building Science for Architects. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
In-text citation reads: (Alread et al. 2014, 486-493)

Edited Book

Braham, W. W and J.A. Hale, eds. 2007. Rethinking Technology: A Reader in Architectural Technology. New York: Routledge.
In-text citation reads: (Braham and Hale 2007, 46-50)

E-Book

Deming, M.E. and S. Swaffield. 2011. Landscape Architectural Research: Inquiry, Strategy, Design.  Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. ProQuest Ebook Central.
In-text citation reads: (Deming and Swaffield 2011, Chapter 1)

Chapter of an Edited Book

Ng, R. 2013. “Essay: Speculations on Future Materiality.” In Performative Materials in Architecture and Design edited by R. Ng and S. Patel, 237-252. Chicago: Intellect, The University of Chicago Press.
In-text citation reads: (Ng 2013, 244-248)

Journal Article

Decker, M. 2017. “Novelty and Ownership: Intellectual Property in Architecture and Design.” Technology Architecture + Design 1(1): 41 – 47.
In-text citation reads: (Decker 2017)

Ayer, S.K., J.L. Messner, and C.J. Anumba. 2016. “Augmented Reality Gaming in Sustainable Design Education.” Journal of Architectural Engineering, 22 (1): 04015012-1 – 04015012-8. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)AE.1943-5568.0000195.
In-text citation reads: (Ayer et al. 2016)

Conference Paper

Sangamithra I. and M. Page. 2017. “Planning for New York City’s Water Supply Resiliency.” Paper presented at the International Conference on Sustainable Infrastructure, New York, NY, October 26-28. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784481202.027.
In-text citation reads: (Sangamithra and Page 2017)

Carraher and J. Rügemer. 2015. “Collaborative Solid Wood Construction Case Study.” In Proceedings of the 2015 Building Technology Educators’ Society Conference, 39-48. Salt Lake City, UT, June 24-27.
In-text citation reads: (Carraher and Rügemer 2015)

Thesis or Dissertation

McBride, E. 2009. “The Development of Architectural Office Specialization as Evidenced by Professional Journals, 1890-1920.” Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 454, Washington University.
In-text citation reads: (McBride 2009, 32)

Newspaper Article

Harvey, F. 2018. “Graphene ‘a game-changer’ in making building with concrete greener.” The Guardian, April 23, 2018.
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/apr/23/graphene-a-game-changer-in-making-building-with-concrete-greener.
In-text citation reads: (Harvey 2018)

Archival Material

Ricker, N. C. 1875. “Shop practice in woodwork 1875.” Nathan C. Ricker Transcripts & Textbooks, 1873–1875, 1884–1890, 1898-1907, 1914–1921, Record Series 12/2/21, Box 4, Univ. of Illinois Archives, Urbana, IL.
In-text citation reads: (Ricker 1875)

Interview

Drew, J. 1995. “Drew, Jane. (2 of 9). National Life Story Collection: Architects’Lives. ”Interview by M. Garlake, May 20-21, 1995. Audio, 31:31.
https://sounds.bl.uk/Oral-history/Architects-Lives/021M-C0467X0003XX-0200V0.
In-text citation reads: (Drew 1995)

Website Content

Taylor and Francis. n.d. “Ensuring your research makes an impact.” Accessed May 7, 2018
https://authorservices.taylorandfrancis.com/ensuring-your-research-makes-an-im pact/.
In-text citation reads: (Taylor and Francis n.d.)

Video Content

Levete, A. 2015. “Amanda Levete, AL_A, on the Changing Role of Risk in Architecture.” National Architecture Conference, Australian Institute of Architects, May 16, 2015. Video, 25:55. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4GJOV_tbD_U.
In-text citation reads: (Levete 2015)

Social Media Content

Adjaye Associates (@adjayeassociates). 2017. “We are honoured to announce that our principal Sir David Adjaye been officially knighted at an investiture ceremony at #buckinghampalace today.” Instagram photo, May 12, 2017.
https://www.instagram.com/p/BT_1sYLlhkP/?hl=en&taken-by=adjayeassociates.
In-text citation reads: (Adjaye Associates 2017)

Patent

Piano, R., D. Campbell, and A. Guthrie. 2007. Light transmission system and method for buildings. US Patent 7,222,461, filed February 28, 2003, and issued May 29, 2007.
In-text citation reads: (Piano et al. 2007)

Software

Typical format: Developer. (Year). Title version number. [Platform], Release City and Country: Publisher.
From Gaming Studies: International Journal of Computer Game Research
Piker, D. 2017. Kangaroo 2.42. United Kingdom: http://www.food4rhino.com/app/kangaroo-physics.
In-text citation reads: (Piker 2017)

 

Last modified: June 1, 2018

[1] “14.2 Chicago’s two systems of source citation” in The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2010), 655.