If the manuscript is accepted for publication, high resolution images will be requested. Not all images, tables and figures submitted will necessarily be included in the publication. When possible, we prefer to use original digital figures to ensure the highest-quality reproduction in the journal. For optimal results, prepare figures to fit a 8.25 inch x 10.5 inch page-width. When creating and submitting digital files, please follow the guidelines below. Failure to do so, or to adhere to the following guidelines, can significantly delay publication of your work.

  • Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to publish any figures or illustrations that are protected by copyright, including figures published elsewhere and pictures taken by professional photographers. The journal cannot publish images without appropriate permission. Please see Taylor & Francis Website for Resources for Image Permission:
  • Each complete figure must be supplied as a separate file upload.
  • Please use the following file naming convention for graphics:
    • Figures [Lastname_Figure_#]


Use Lato typeface for creating legends.  A 7-point font size is the minimum size legible in print. Because image size may change during production, please provide editable files whenever possible; Adobe Illustrator (ai) or .eps files preferred.


Please submit tables in your main article document in an editable format (Word or as appropriate), and not as images. Tables that include statistical analysis of data should describe their standards of error analysis and ranges in a table legend.


Equations and mathematical expressions should be provided in the main text of the paper. Equations that are referred to in the text are identified by parenthetical numbers, such as (1), and are referred to in the manuscript as “equation (1)”.

If your manuscript is or will be in .docx format and contains equations, you must follow the instructions below to make sure that your equations are editable when the file enters production.

  • If you have not yet composed your article, you can ensure that the equations in your .docx file remain editable in .doc by enabling “Compatibility Mode” before you begin. To do this, open a new document and save as Word 97-2003 (*.doc). Several features of Word 2007/10 will now be inactive, including the built-in equation editing tool. You can insert equations in one of the two ways listed below.
  • If you have already composed your article as .docx and used its built-in equation editing tool, your equations will become images when the file is saved down to .doc. To resolve this problem, re-key your equations in one of the two following ways:
    • Use MathType to create the equation. MathType is the recommended method for creating equations.
    • Go to Insert > Object > Microsoft Equation 3.0 and create the equation.

If, when saving your final document, you see a message saying “Equations will be converted to images”, your equations are no longer editable and we will not be able to accept your file.


 Line art, graphs, charts and schematics

For optimal results, all line art, graphs, charts and schematics should be supplied as editable files in vector format, such as EPS or AI, and should be saved or exported as such directly from the application in which they were made. Please ensure that data points and axis labels are clearly legible.

  • Line drawings should be .eps or ai files at 1200 dpi and not to exceed 11” on the long axis

Photographic and bitmap images

All photographic and bitmap images should be supplied in a bitmap image format such as tiff, jpg, or psd. If saving tiff files, please ensure that the compression option is selected to avoid very large file sizes.

  • Please do not supply Word or Powerpoint files with placed images.
  • Figures can be either .jpg or .tiff scanned at 300 dpi and not to exceed 11” on the long axis (Example: A file size of 2550 pixels wide x 3300 pixels h can be printed full bleed in TAD).
  • Color images should be saved as CMYK; B/W images should be saved as grayscale.
  • Please see Taylor & Francis Website for further reference:
  • Exception: For a two page introductory image to your paper, image files should be saved as 300 dpi sized for a proportion of 10.625 x 11.125 (this includes the bleed). Editors will discuss introductory images will authors once a paper has been accepted for publication.

Figures that do not meet these standards will not reproduce well and may delay publication until we receive high-resolution images.

Chemical structures images

Chemical structures should be exported into a 300 dpi RGB tiff file before being submitted.

Stereo images

Stereo diagrams should be presented for divergent ‘wall-eyed’ viewing, with the two panels separated by 2 in. In the final accepted version of the manuscript, the stereo images should be submitted for a maximum 8.25 x 10.5 page size.